Generating hydrogen gas pre lab

That alone makes it a very important element. Then we add the fact that we need it to breathe, and we see the importance of oxygen. On Earth the production of oxygen gas also called elemental oxygen comes from photosynthesis carried out by plants and algae. In this experiment, we will prepare it by using a decomposition reaction. Create magnesium oxide and check whether acids or bases are formed.

When you have a way to produce pure oxygen O 2there are a lot of possibilities. The first one to come to mind is to increase the rate of combustion. That is why potassium chlorate KClO 3 is used an an oxygen source in rockets and in fireworks. Potassium perchlorate KClO 4 is also used. Most everyone is familiar with the oxygen masks that drop from the ceiling of an airplane during an emergency from losing air pressure.

The oxygen that feeds the masks comes from metal canisters that are about 10 inches long and 3 inches in diameter. Each canister provides oxygen to 2 or 3 seats. Chlorate ClO 3 - and perchlorate ClO 4 - can easily decompose to create pure oxygen. Barium peroxide BaO 2like many other peroxides, will also decompose to create pure oxygen.

Peroxides are compounds where two oxygens are bonded together.

Hydrogen generation by steam reforming (Mahler AGS GmbH)

Note that in ClO 3 - and ClO 4 - the oxygen atoms are bonded to the chlorine atom and not to each other. The decomposition of these 3 oxidizers is initiated by a blasting cap that is fired when you pull down on the oxygen mask. When a person has lung problems, breathing concentrated oxygen helps in the transfer of oxygen to the blood.

The oxygen used for medical purposes does not come from a decomposition of oxidizes like NaClO3 above, but comes from oxygen that gets filtered from the air in the room.

The device that filters out nitrogen from the air and therefore makes the concentration of oxygen higher is called an oxygen concentrator see below. An oxygen concentrator is used to concentrate the oxygen for the purpose of breathing. It does this because it has some porous material called zeolite which traps nitrogen molecules momentarily allowing oxygen to pass on through. The ethylene glycol is further used as an ingredient to make a variety of plastics.

Ethylene gas is the most produced organic compound in the world. It comes from petroleum. Ethylene is also used to make poly ethylene plastic plus many more products.

How to Make Hydrogen Gas Using Simple Materials

For example, sulfuric acid needed for our car batteries is made using vanadium V oxide. Vanadium is the third element from the left on the top row of the transition metals blue background. For example, aluminum oxide Al 2 O 3 forms on the surface of aluminum, which blocks any more oxygen from getting to the aluminum. If it didn't block the oxygen, aluminum cans, foil, car parts, and airplane parts would turn to powder in a few hours or days. Aluminum oxide is the main ingredient in sapphires.

It's the toughness that makes sapphires gemstones because they resist being scratched. Also, the hardness of aluminum oxide makes it good as high quality sand paper. Aluminum frying pans also get their toughness from the aluminum oxide coating. Spacecrafts use titanium because it's light and also because titanium forms a tough layer of titanium oxide on its surface.

For example, calcium oxide CaO and magnesium oxide are key ingredients in cement.Use Equation 1 to write the formula for magnesium chloride and balance the following equation for the reaction of magnesium with hydrochloric acid. If the metal used was Al, use Equation 1 to determine the mol ration of metal to hydrogen gas.

Determine the percent composition of the metal in the metal chloride produced in your experiment. The measurement of the mass of metal should be precise to 0.

Thus the largest source of error in obtaining the atomic mass of the metal is likely to be the measurement of the volume of gas evolved. Calculate the atomic mass of the metal if the volume measured in the prelab problem 4 was Copper is a transition metal that can have more than one charge. How does the amount of hydrogen gas evolved change with each? Give two possible sources of error in your experiment. Explain how would each affect the true value would the atomic mass of the metal be calculated too high, too low or be unaffected?

Skip to main content. Module 3: Percent Composition Laboratory. Search for:. Lab 3 Worksheet Download a. Licenses and Attributions. CC licensed content, Original. This will vary depending on your metal.A gas is the state of matter that is characterized by having neither a fixed shape nor a fixed volume.

Gases exert pressure, are compressible, have low densities and diffuse rapidly when mixed with other gases. On a microscopic level, the molecules or atoms in a gas are separated by large distances and are in constant, random motion. The relationships among these properties are summarized by the Gas Laws, as shown in the table below.

A closer look at the Combined Law reveals that the volume of a gas depends on both the pressure and temperature. The single displacement reaction between magnesium metal and hydrochloric acid will be used to generate the hydrogen gas:.

The hydrogen gas will be collected in a eudiometera tube closed at one end and marked in milliliter volume units. The gas will be collected in the closed end of the tube over a water bath via the technique of water displacement see figures below. Students will then obtain the following values for the collected sample of hydrogen gas: 1 Volume, 2 Temperature, 3 Moles, and 4 Pressure. The hydrogen volume will be directly measured from the eudiometer scale.

The hydrogen temperature will also be directly measured using a thermometer. However, the mole quantity and pressure of the hydrogen gas must be determined indirectly. The mole quantity of the collected hydrogen can be easily calculated from the measured mass of the magnesium reactant using stoichiometry. But the hydrogen pressure is a little more difficult to obtain. Since hydrogen is collected over a water bath, a small amount of water vapor is mixed with the hydrogen in the eudiometer. Handle it with extreme care as demonstrated by your instructor.

If any spills occur, inform your instructor immediately. Wash under running water sink or shower and use the neutralizing sodium bicarbonate solution supplied at the sinks if necessary. Also note that hydrogen gas is flammable, so be sure to have no open flames nearby when you perform this experiment. Figure 2: After Inverting. Show all your conversions and calculations for each step clearly in the table below.

Pay attention to units and significant figures. Procedure Materials and Equipment 4. Experimental Procedure Magnesium Ribbon Obtain a 4. Do not sand on the bench top! Note that this mass should be less than 0. Do this in a tight ball with only a small gap between layers. Eudiometer Set Up and Reaction Obtain a eudiometer tube and stopper with holes from the stockroom.In association with Nuffield Foundation. Gases give rise to particular hazards so great care must be taken when preparing, collecting or testing.

How the gas is to be used will differ from experiment to experiment — it is essential to read carefully the specific instructions given or referred to in the experiment details. This is especially important if the gas needs to be dried. Gases can be collected by upward or downward delivery or over water. Refer to specific information on each gas. The diagram below shows a typical set of apparatus which can be used to prepare a range of gases.

Wear appropriate eye protection. The amounts given below are sufficient to generate 1 litre 1 dm 3 of each of the named gases. Collect gas by downward delivery or over water slightly soluble. Collect gas by upward delivery or over water.

Collect gas over water. School samples often react too slowly because old sodium chlorate I is used. Collect gas by downward delivery. This collection of over practical activities demonstrates a wide range of chemical concepts and processes. Each activity contains comprehensive information for teachers and technicians, including full technical notes and step-by-step procedures.

generating hydrogen gas pre lab

Through the reaction of copper II oxide with hydrogen, the composition of water and its formula can be worked out. Challenge the misconception that metals and non-metals are completely opposite in their properties with this activity. Which material makes the warmest jacket? Site powered by Webvision Cloud. Skip to main content Skip to navigation.

No comments. Gas preparation general The diagram below shows a typical set of apparatus which can be used to prepare a range of gases. Chlorine, Cl 2 Work in a fume cupboard. Additional information This is a resource from the Practical Chemistry project, developed by the Nuffield Foundation and the Royal Society of Chemistry. Use Teacher notes Technician notes.

Category Practical skills and safety.Although no charge or fee is required for using TeachEngineering curricular materials in your classroom, the lessons and activities often require material supplies. The expendable cost is the estimated cost of supplies needed for each group of students involved in the activity. Many engineered systems have chemical components that react to create new products, release energy or change the state of materials.

Engineers who design combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, medicines, cosmetics, processed foods and many other products, calculate and control chemical reactions as part of their work.

As part of their design efforts, chemical engineers, materials engineers, environmental engineers, food engineers, and others, perform chemical reaction calculations and test their correctness in the lab. Oxygen and hydrogen combine to produce water as well as release energy. Engineers apply this energy-releasing reaction concept to solve real-life problems, such as hydrogen-fueled rockets and fuel cells that generate electrical power for vehicles and homes.

Unlike traditional hydrocarbon fuels, hydrogen and oxygen do not produce any polluting byproducts, making it an alternative renewable source of energy. Many engineers are developing technologies to efficiently exploit the potential of hydrogen energy. Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K science, technology, engineering or math STEM educational standards.

In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e. Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties. Grades 9 - Do you agree with this alignment?

Thanks for your feedback! Alignment agreement: Thanks for your feedback!

Exp: Gas Stoichiometry

View aligned curriculum. NOTE: alternatively, prepare a hydrogen bag generator and an oxygen bag generator for the entire class to use; refer to the Gas Bags - Teacher Preparation Instructions for required materials. The purpose of this lesson is to teach students how a spacecraft gets from the surface of the Earth to Mars.

Students first investigate rockets and how they are able to get us into space. Finally, the nature of an orbit is discussed as well as how orbits enable us to get from planet to planet — spec Students acquire a basic understanding of the science and engineering of space travel as well as a brief history of space exploration. They learn about the scientists and engineers who made space travel possible and briefly examine some famous space missions.

Students learn how rocket thrust is generated with propellant. The two types of propellants are discussed—liquid and solid—and their relation to their use on rockets is investigated. Students learn why engineers need to know the different properties of propellants. Students explore motion, rockets and rocket motion while assisting Spacewoman Tess, Spaceman Rohan and Maya in their explorations.

First they learn some basic facts about vehicles, rockets and why we use them. Then, they discover that the motion of all objects—including the flight of a rocket and mo Combine two parts hydrogen with one part oxygen and what do you get?

See if students know. You get water and an energy release in the form of a loud POW!It's easy to generate hydrogen gas at home or in a lab using common household materials. Here's how to make hydrogen safely. One of the easiest ways to obtain hydrogen is to get it from water, H 2 O. This method employs electrolysis, which breaks water into hydrogen and oxygen gas. There are two simple improvements you can make to improve the efficiency of hydrogen gas production.

You can use graphite carbon in the form of pencil "lead" as electrodes and you can add a pinch of salt to the water to act as an electrolyte. The graphite makes good electrodes because it is electrically neutral and won't dissolve during the electrolysis reaction.

The salt is helpful because it dissociates into ions which increase the current flow. You can get hydrogen gas by reacting hydrochloric acid with zinc:. Hydrogen gas bubbles will be released as soon as the acid and zinc are mixed. Be very careful to avoid contact with the acid. Also, heat will be given off by this reaction.

This is an extremely easy method of making homemade hydrogen gas. Simply add some water to the drain clog removal product! The reaction is exothermic, so use a glass bottle not plastic to collect the resulting gas.

Pre-Lab Questions *Molar volume of a Gas Pre Lab?

Share Flipboard Email. Science Activities for Every Subject. Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph. Chemistry Expert. Helmenstine holds a Ph. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Facebook Facebook Twitter Twitter. Updated December 09, Unbend the paperclips and connect one to each terminal of the battery.

Place the other ends, not touching, into a container of water. That's it! You'll get bubbles off both wires. The one with more bubbles is giving off pure hydrogen.

The other bubbles are impure oxygen.Oxygen is one of the most abundant elements on this planet. Oxygen exhibits many unique physical and chemical properties. For example, oxygen is a colorless and odorless gas, with a density greater than that of air, and a very low solubility in water.

In fact, the latter two properties greatly facilitate the collection of oxygen in this lab. Among the unique chemical properties of oxygen are its ability to support respiration in plants and animals, and its ability to support combustion.

In this lab, oxygen will be generated as a product of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. A catalyst is used to speed up the rate of the decomposition reaction, which would otherwise be too slow to use as a source of oxygen. The catalyst does not get consumed by the reaction, and can be collected for re-use once the reaction is complete.

generating hydrogen gas pre lab

The particular catalyst used in this lab is manganese IV oxide. The oxygen gas produced will be collected in bottles by a method known as the downward displacement of water see figure 1.

Once collected, several tests will be performed in order to investigate the role of oxygen in several combustion reactions. During a combustion reaction, oxygen reacts chemically with the substance being burned. Both oxygen and the substance being burned the reactants are consumed during the combustion reaction, while new substances the products and heat energy are generated.

UK Chemistry Olympiad

Since heat is produced, this is an exothermic reaction. The actual products of a combustion reaction depend on what substance is burned and how much oxygen is present. In general, however, when a pure element burns in oxygen the product is called an oxide.

generating hydrogen gas pre lab

An oxide is a compound containing both the element and oxygen chemically combined together. Some examples of element combustion are shown below. Several such reactions will be performed using the oxygen gas collected in this lab. If either of these chemicals comes into contact with your skin, immediately rinse with water for a minimum of fifteen minutes and notify your instructor.