Which intermolecular forces do pentane and hexane experience

The shear viscosity or viscosity, in short of a fluid is a material property that describes the friction between internal neighboring fluid surfaces or sheets flowing with different fluid velocities. This friction is the effect of linear momentum exchange caused by molecules with sufficient energy to move or "to jump" between these fluid sheets due to fluctuations in their motion.

The viscosity is not a material constant, but a material property that depends on temperature, pressure, fluid mixture composition, local velocity variations. This functional relationship is described by a mathematical viscosity model called a constitutive equation which is usually far more complex than the defining equation of shear viscosity.

One such complicating feature is the relation between the viscosity model for a pure fluid and the model for a fluid mixture which is called mixing rules. When scientists and engineers use new arguments or theories to develop a new viscosity model, instead of improving the reigning model, it may lead to the first model in a new class of models. This article will display one or two representative models for different classes of viscosity models, and these classes are:.

Selected contributions from these development directions is displayed in the following sections. This means that some known contributions of research and development directions are not included. For example, is the group contribution method applied to a shear viscosity model not displayed. Even though it is an important method, it is thought to be a method for parameterization of a selected viscosity model, rather than a viscosity model in itself.

The microscopic or molecular origin of fluids means that transport coefficients like viscosity can be calculated by time correlations which are valid for both gases and liquids, but it is computer intensive calculations. Another approach is the Boltzmann equation which describes the statistical behaviour of a thermodynamic system not in a state of equilibrium.

It can be used to determine how physical quantities change, such as heat energy and momentum, when a fluid is in transport, but it is computer intensive simulations. From Boltzmann's equation one may also analytical derive analytical mathematical models for properties characteristic to fluids such as viscosity, thermal conductivityand electrical conductivity by treating the charge carriers in a material as a gas.

See also convection—diffusion equation. The mathematics is so complicated for polar and non-spherical molecules that it is very difficult to get practical models for viscosity. The purely theoretical approach will therefore be left out for the rest of this article, except for some visits related to dilute gas and significant structure theory.

The classic Navier-Stokes equation is the balance equation for momentum density for an isotropic, compressional and viscous fluid that is used in fluid mechanics in general and fluid dynamics in particular:.

For fluids, the spatial or Eularian form of the governing equations is preferred to the material or Lagrangian form, and the concept of velocity gradient is preferred to the equivalent concept of strain rate tensor.

The classic compression velocity "gradient" is a diagonal tensor that describes a compressing alt. The classic Cauchy shear velocity gradient, is a symmetric and traceless tensor that describes a pure shear flow where pure means excluding normal outflow which in mathematical terms means a traceless matrix around e.

How much the volume viscosity contributes to the flow characteristics in e. The volume viscosity will now be abandoned, and the rest of the article will focus on the shear viscosity.Chapter 1 Chapter 1: The Chemical World 1.

The properties of liquids are intermediate between those of gases and solids, but are more similar to solids. In contrast to intra molecular forces, such as the covalent bonds that hold atoms together in molecules and polyatomic ions, inter molecular forces hold molecules together in a liquid or solid.

11.2: Intermolecular Forces

Intermolecular forces are generally much weaker than covalent bonds. Despite this seemingly low value, the intermolecular forces in liquid water are among the strongest such forces known! Given the large difference in the strengths of intra- and intermolecular forces, changes between the solid, liquid, and gaseous states almost invariably occur for molecular substances without breaking covalent bonds.

The properties of liquids are intermediate between those of gases and solids but are more similar to solids. Intermolecular forces determine bulk properties such as the melting points of solids and the boiling points of liquids. Liquids boil when the molecules have enough thermal energy to overcome the intermolecular attractive forces that hold them together, thereby forming bubbles of vapor within the liquid.

Similarly, solids melt when the molecules acquire enough thermal energy to overcome the intermolecular forces that lock them into place in the solid. Intermolecular forces are electrostatic in nature; that is, they arise from the interaction between positively and negatively charged species. Like covalent and ionic bonds, intermolecular interactions are the sum of both attractive and repulsive components.

Because electrostatic interactions fall off rapidly with increasing distance between molecules, intermolecular interactions are most important for solids and liquids, where the molecules are close together.

These interactions become important for gases only at very high pressures, where they are responsible for the observed deviations from the ideal gas law at high pressures. For more information on the behavior of real gases and deviations from the ideal gas law.

In this section, we explicitly consider three kinds of intermolecular interactions: There are two additional types of electrostatic interaction that you are already familiar with: the ion—ion interactions that are responsible for ionic bonding and the ion—dipole interactions that occur when ionic substances dissolve in a polar substance such as water.

The first two are often described collectively as van der Waals forces. Polar covalent bonds behave as if the bonded atoms have localized fractional charges that are equal but opposite i. If the structure of a molecule is such that the individual bond dipoles do not cancel one another, then the molecule has a net dipole moment.

On average, however, the attractive interactions dominate. In addition, the attractive interaction between dipoles falls off much more rapidly with increasing distance than do the ion—ion interactions.

Solubilities of iodine in water and hexane

Their structures are as follows:. Compare the molar masses and the polarities of the compounds. Compounds with higher molar masses and that are polar will have the highest boiling points.

The first compound, 2-methylpropane, contains only C—H bonds, which are not very polar because C and H have similar electronegativities. It should therefore have a very small but nonzero dipole moment and a very low boiling point. As a result, the C—O bond dipoles partially reinforce one another and generate a significant dipole moment that should give a moderately high boiling point.

The C—O bond dipole therefore corresponds to the molecular dipole, which should result in both a rather large dipole moment and a high boiling point. Thus far we have considered only interactions between polar molecules, but other factors must be considered to explain why many nonpolar molecules, such as bromine, benzene, and hexane, are liquids at room temperature, and others, such as iodine and naphthalene, are solids. What kind of attractive forces can exist between nonpolar molecules or atoms?

This question was answered by Fritz London —a German physicist who later worked in the United States. InLondon proposed that temporary fluctuations in the electron distributions within atoms and nonpolar molecules could result in the formation of short-lived instantaneous dipole momentswhich produce attractive forces called London dispersion forces between otherwise nonpolar substances.

Consider a pair of adjacent He atoms, for example. On average, the two electrons in each He atom are uniformly distributed around the nucleus. Because the electrons are in constant motion, however, their distribution in one atom is likely to be asymmetrical at any given instant, resulting in an instantaneous dipole moment.

The net effect is that the first atom causes the temporary formation of a dipole, called an induced dipolein the second. Interactions between these temporary dipoles cause atoms to be attracted to one another. These attractive interactions are weak and fall off rapidly with increasing distance.

Doubling the distance therefore decreases the attractive energy by 2 6or fold. Instantaneous dipole—induced dipole interactions between nonpolar molecules can produce intermolecular attractions just as they produce interatomic attractions in monatomic substances like Xe.Mole Concept 2.

Stoichiometry 3. Atomic Structure 4. Chemical Bonding 5. Periodic Table and Representative Element 6. Gaseous State 7. Chemical Equilibrium 8. Ionic Equilibrium 9. Thermodynamics Hydrocarbons Nitrogen Family. Key Concepts 2. Exercise I 3. Exercise II 4. Exercise III 5. Exercise IV 6. Answer Key 7.

Gases do not have volume. What is meant by "Volume of gas"? How would I calculate moles if volume of a solid is given?In organic chemistryan alkaneor paraffin a historical name that also has other meaningsis an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon. In other words, an alkane consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in a tree structure in which all the carbon—carbon bonds are single.

However, some sources use the term to denote any saturated hydrocarbon, including those that are either monocyclic i. In an alkane, each carbon atom is sp 3 -hybridized with 4 sigma bonds either C—C or C—Hand each hydrogen atom is joined to one of the carbon atoms in a C—H bond. The longest series of linked carbon atoms in a molecule is known as its carbon skeleton or carbon backbone.

The number of carbon atoms may be considered as the size of the alkane. One group of the higher alkanes are waxessolids at standard ambient temperature and pressure SATPfor which the number of carbon atoms in the carbon backbone is greater than about With their repeated —CH 2 units, the alkanes constitute a homologous series of organic compounds in which the members differ in molecular mass by multiples of Methane is produced by methanogenic bacteria and some long-chain alkanes function as pheromones in certain animal species or as protective waxes in plants and fungi.

Nevertheless, most alkanes do not have much biological activity. The alkanes have two main commercial sources: petroleum crude oil [3] and natural gas. An alkyl group is an alkane-based molecular fragment that bears one open valence for bonding. They are generally abbreviated with the symbol for any organyl group, R, although Alk is sometimes used to specifically symbolize an alkyl group as opposed to an alkenyl group or aryl group.

Saturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons having only single covalent bonds between their carbons. They can be:. According to the definition by IUPACthe former two are alkanes, whereas the third group is called cycloalkanes. Alkanes with more than three carbon atoms can be arranged in various ways, forming structural isomers.

The simplest isomer of an alkane is the one in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a single chain with no branches. This isomer is sometimes called the n -isomer n for "normal", although it is not necessarily the most common.

However the chain of carbon atoms may also be branched at one or more points. The number of possible isomers increases rapidly with the number of carbon atoms. For example, for acyclic alkanes: [4]. Branched alkanes can be chiral. For example, 3-methylhexane and its higher homologues are chiral due to their stereogenic center at carbon atom number 3.

which intermolecular forces do pentane and hexane experience

The above list only includes differences of connectivity, not stereochemistry. In addition to the alkane isomers, the chain of carbon atoms may form one or more rings.

which intermolecular forces do pentane and hexane experience

Such compounds are called cycloalkanesand are also excluded from the above list because changing the number of rings changes the molecular formula. Cyclobutane and methylcyclopropane are isomers of each other, but are not isomers of butane. The IUPAC nomenclature systematic way of naming compounds for alkanes is based on identifying hydrocarbon chains. Unbranched, saturated hydrocarbon chains are named systematically with a Greek numerical prefix denoting the number of carbons and the suffix "-ane".

This is because shorter chains attached to longer chains are prefixes and the convention includes brackets. Numbers in the name, referring to which carbon a group is attached to, should be as low as possible so that 1- is implied and usually omitted from names of organic compounds with only one side-group. Symmetric compounds will have two ways of arriving at the same name. Straight-chain alkanes are sometimes indicated by the prefix "n-" or " n -" for "normal" where a non-linear isomer exists.The properties of liquids are intermediate between those of gases and solids, but are more similar to solids.

In contrast to intra molecular forces, such as the covalent bonds that hold atoms together in molecules and polyatomic ions, inter molecular forces hold molecules together in a liquid or solid.

Intermolecular forces are generally much weaker than covalent bonds. Despite this seemingly low value, the intermolecular forces in liquid water are among the strongest such forces known! Given the large difference in the strengths of intra- and intermolecular forces, changes between the solid, liquid, and gaseous states almost invariably occur for molecular substances without breaking covalent bonds.

The properties of liquids are intermediate between those of gases and solids but are more similar to solids. Intermolecular forces determine bulk properties such as the melting points of solids and the boiling points of liquids. Liquids boil when the molecules have enough thermal energy to overcome the intermolecular attractive forces that hold them together, thereby forming bubbles of vapor within the liquid.

Similarly, solids melt when the molecules acquire enough thermal energy to overcome the intermolecular forces that lock them into place in the solid. Intermolecular forces are electrostatic in nature; that is, they arise from the interaction between positively and negatively charged species.

Like covalent and ionic bonds, intermolecular interactions are the sum of both attractive and repulsive components. Because electrostatic interactions fall off rapidly with increasing distance between molecules, intermolecular interactions are most important for solids and liquids, where the molecules are close together. These interactions become important for gases only at very high pressures, where they are responsible for the observed deviations from the ideal gas law at high pressures.

For more information on the behavior of real gases and deviations from the ideal gas law. In this section, we explicitly consider three kinds of intermolecular interactions: There are two additional types of electrostatic interaction that you are already familiar with: the ion—ion interactions that are responsible for ionic bonding and the ion—dipole interactions that occur when ionic substances dissolve in a polar substance such as water. The first two are often described collectively as van der Waals forces.

Polar covalent bonds behave as if the bonded atoms have localized fractional charges that are equal but opposite i. If the structure of a molecule is such that the individual bond dipoles do not cancel one another, then the molecule has a net dipole moment. On average, however, the attractive interactions dominate. In addition, the attractive interaction between dipoles falls off much more rapidly with increasing distance than do the ion—ion interactions.

Their structures are as follows:. Compare the molar masses and the polarities of the compounds. Compounds with higher molar masses and that are polar will have the highest boiling points.

The first compound, 2-methylpropane, contains only C—H bonds, which are not very polar because C and H have similar electronegativities.

It should therefore have a very small but nonzero dipole moment and a very low boiling point. As a result, the C—O bond dipoles partially reinforce one another and generate a significant dipole moment that should give a moderately high boiling point. The C—O bond dipole therefore corresponds to the molecular dipole, which should result in both a rather large dipole moment and a high boiling point. Thus far we have considered only interactions between polar molecules, but other factors must be considered to explain why many nonpolar molecules, such as bromine, benzene, and hexane, are liquids at room temperature, and others, such as iodine and naphthalene, are solids.

What kind of attractive forces can exist between nonpolar molecules or atoms? This question was answered by Fritz London —a German physicist who later worked in the United States.They also see the value in kitting out their physical space with a welcoming environment and paying more for experienced staff. But when it comes to small businesses investing in their digital platforms (aka the backbone of day-to-day operations), cheaper or free have traditionally been the go-to solutions.

Use a free appointment app to handle the bookings. POS and inventory software. The value a business places on a digital platform tells its patrons everything they need to know about its true values. As digital platforms continue to become more powerful and interconnected, it gets easier for customers to see which businesses are authentically interested in their support.

Retailtainment will pervade the industry. Retailtainment assumes that people are more likely to engage with retailers who incorporate lifestyle elements into their stores, such as boutique coffee shops or virtual reality experiences. Take iPic Theaters, for example. Data will continue to be a significant component of retail success.

More and more merchants will recognize this which is why we think companies will double-down on data collection and analysis.

which intermolecular forces do pentane and hexane experience

JustFab is one example of a company that puts its customer data to good use. JustFab also closely tracks the products each member browses, rejects, and buys and then uses data to curate selections for each member. Using data to personalize customer experiences is just the beginning. Data analysis also plays a major role behind the scenes, especially when it comes to inventory management and merchandising.

Retailers rely on data to forecast demand and to make important stock-control decisions. Have a look at what clothing company Patagonia is doing. Patagonia factors in current trends and historical data (among other things) to figure out which products to purchase and distribute in its stores.

It influences so many important aspects of business: productivity, growth, innovation, and more. The volume and detail of data that companies are collecting, along with the rise of multimedia and social media use in retail, is only going to continue to fuel the growth of data in the future.

Retailers will need to pay close mind to upskilling themselves and their staff to be able to analyze and understand the data they collect and how to use it.

Specialty stores will be more productive than department stores. Specialty stores those that focus on particular categories such as beauty products will have a leg up in 2017 as consumer interests focus in on curated selections and localized wares.

Look for specialty stores to win in the coming year. Specialty stores also tend to provide better in-store experiences for their customers, with more knowledgeable staff, better prices, and more personalized service.

By offering all this, specialty stores prove their advantages over department stores and develop direct relationships with their customers. We can expect more of these changes but in 2017, specialty stores will reign. Retailers will turn to apps, services, and third parties to fulfill the needs of modern shoppers.Canadian Football Latest odds for Canadian footballToday's Featured Odds table.

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All you need to know to find out who is the best bet to score next Players Card-happy control freak. That doesn't mean bets haven't stopped coming in to sports books from those hoping for a massive upset.

In fact, because of the amount of money coming in for McGregor (21-3 in MMA) ahead of his pro boxing debut, the 40-year-old Mayweather (49-0, 26 KOs) continues to become less of a betting favorite by the day.

As of Wednesday, the latest odds from Bovada saw Mayweather, who returns from a two-year retirement to face McGregor at T-Mobile Arena in Las Vegas (Showtime PPV, 9 p. ET), as just a -450 favorite. To better illustrate that point, McGregor is now less of a betting underdog than Mayweather opponents Marcos Maidana (both fights), Miguel Cotto, Zab Judah, Andre Berto and Victor Ortiz.

Firefox Up next: Floyd Mayweather betting odds keep falling as Conor McGregor picks up steam Floyd Mayweather betting odds keep falling as Conor McGregor picks up steam Despite critics giving him no chance, bets continue to come in for McGregor on Aug. Rigondeaux preview, pick Vasyl Lomachenko and Guillermo Rigondeaux will go toe-to-toe on Saturday night Rigondeaux gets 2nd chance to spoil Arum The enigmatic defensive wizard faces Vasyl Lomachenko in Saturday's junior lightweight title.

New Orleans (Total)Dallas at NY Giants (Spread)Cincinnati vs. San Francisco (Total)Minnesota at Carolina (Total)Minnesota at Carolina (Spread)Kansas City vs. Oakland (Total)Green Bay at Cleveland (Spread)Green Bay at Cleveland (Total)LA Rams vs. Philadelphia (Total)LA Chargers vs. Welcome to the Sports Betting Odds section of The Sports Geek. The most common type of sports betting odds used in North America are the American style odds which we explain below. There are a couple different versions of sports betting odds, but these American Odds are the most common odds used.

Reading and understanding sports betting odds can bet a little confusing to beginners, so we have provided an example below using two NFL football teams:The number shown in the bracket represents the odds. The American Odds have two components to them, the first being the positive or negative sign, and the second being the number that follows the sign. The sign in front of the number indicates whether placing a wager on that outcome will pay out more money then you have wagered or less money then you have wagered.

The next step is figuring out exactly how much the bet pays out, which is where the numbers in the odds come into play. Again this can easily be converted into smaller or larger size bets. The great thing about betting online is that the online sportsbooks will do the calculations for you before you place your bet. You can click on the outcome or team you would like to bet on, and then input the amount you wish to wager and it will show you your potential pay out before you confirm your bet.

Ready To Start Betting. You will also get a Free Money Bonus at each sportsbook if you follow either link above. Decimal style odds are used mostly in Europe, and are pretty easy to understand. To calculate the decimal style odds all you will need to do is simply multiply the amount you wish to wager by the decimal odds shown and you will get your payout.

which intermolecular forces do pentane and hexane experience

With that said, most online betting sites will allow you to chose the style of betting odds you want displayed, with American odds set as the default. Click here to compare online betting sites so you can get started today. Below is an example of MLB betting odds taken from an online betting site. Decimal Style Sports Betting Odds Decimal style odds are used mostly in Europe, and are pretty easy to understand.

For example it may look something like this: USA (2. Tonight we have an 11-game slate on. NCAAM Basketball Pick for December 9th Alabama Crimson Tide (7-2) at Arizona Wildcats (6-3) The Betting line information for this article was taken from sportsbetting.

Viscosity models for mixtures

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